BASIC MANTRAS OF SHIVA:
॥ नमः शिवाय ॥
Panchakshari (or panchakshara) means five-syllable. The number 5 is sacred to Shiva. Most often, these five syllables are associated with His five faces or with five elements (earth, water, fire, air, ether). When pranava (syllable "oṃ") is placed before these five syllables, another mantra is formed, which is called shadakshari (or shadakshara) - "six-syllable", where "oṃ" expresses Shiva as a transcendent, unmanifest, all-inclusive Absolute, the Universe, the Universal Mind, and " namaḥ śivāya ”- the fullness of His manifestations. The literal meaning of "namaḥ śivāya" is "salutions (or bow) to Shiva." All offerings in this version of Shiva Pooja are made with the simultaneous recitation of this mantra, and at the end of the ceremony it is necessary to repeat it 108 times, using beads from Rudraksha seeds to count the number of repetitions.
॥ ॐ नमो भगवते रुद्राय ॥
oṃ namo bhagavate rudrāya
The Rudra-mantra is recited in order to attain the blessings of Lord Shiva. It is considered an effective mean for fulfilling desires and getting rid of all kinds of suffering. Its literal meaning is “Om. Salutions (obeisance) to the Bhagavan Rudra."
॥ ॐ तत्पुरुषाय विद्महे । महादेवाय धीमहि । तन्नो रुद्र: प्रचोदयात् ॥
oṃ tatpuruṣāya vidmahe | mahādevāya dhīmahi | tanno rudraḥ pracodayāt
One can recite this mantra with complete genuineness to reveal the happiness and divinity that are already present within. This mantra is also chant to gain the direct guidance from Shiva in the all actions of a devotee and in order to always remember about Lord Shiva. The meaning of this mantra is "Om. Let us comprehend Tatpurusha. We meditate on a Great God. Let Rudra guide us."
कर्पूरगौरं करुणावतारम् । संसारसारं भुजगेन्द्रहारम् ॥ सदा वसन्तं हृदयारविन्दे । भवं भवानि सहितं नमामि ॥
karpūragauraṃ karuṇāvatāram | saṃsārasāraṃ bhujagendrahāram ||
sadā vasantaṃ hṛdayāravinde | bhavaṃ bhavāni sahitaṃ namāmi ||
This mantra is used to meditate on Lord Shiva before and after the pooja. When chanting this mantra, one should mentally contemplate Lord Shiva and Bhavani Ma in one's own heart. In this case, one can keep one's hands at chest level, folded in "linga mudra". Meaning of the mantra: "White, like a camphoor the embodiment of compassion, the Essence of being, bearing the king of serpents, eternally youthful in the lotus [of my] heart, Bhava along with Bhavani, I worship."
ॐ त्र्यम्बकं यजामहे सुगन्धिं पुष्टिवर्धनम् । उर्वारुकमिव बन्धनान् मृत्योर्मुक्षीय मामृतात् ॥
oṃ tryambakaṃ yajāmahe sugandhiṃ puṣṭi vardhanam |
urvārukam iva bandhanān mṛtyor mukṣīya māmṛtāt ||
This mantra is addressed to Lord Shiva and is recited to prevent premature death and gain the protection of Shiva in any danger and threat. It is also chanted by applying sacred ash (vibhuti-bhasma) to various parts of the body. It is believed that chanting (japa) of this mantra, performed on a practitioner's birthday, is especially fruitful. Meaning: “Like a cucumber* to a stem, tied to samsara, may [He] save us from death, not from immortality!"
*word «urvāruka» also often translating as "melon" or "pumpkin".